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iSQI - PDF Questions
The’A’LeveICanonSally Minogue[This is a slightly revised version of a paper delivered at theConference for Higher Education Teachers of English at theUniversity of Kent, Easter 1987.]I need to begin with the aid of saying whatever concerning the institutionalisation of English in schooling, and they don’t want tolook a long way for pictures of this institutionalisation. this is a convention for academics of English in better schooling; a quickglance during the list of individuals reveals a miniscule variety of teachers of English from other sectors of training(we’re each right here on the platform); and what are they talkingabout? about pre-HE English. The conference is taking location ina college, some of the many to which the percent of working classification entrants has really declined in real phrases over thelast twenty to thirty years; and in a geographical area where theeleven-plus nevertheless exists, in order that preference ensures an initialeducational failure, frequently on the groundwork of factors of category andculture, which may also often be complex, indeed impossible, torecover from. contemporary research showing that having a graduateparent is a.greater vital element than education in determiningwhether a child goes on to larger education might also make leftwing tuition teachers squirm a little, and may be of fully no comfort to working-category parents.
in the schools, instructor morale is at an all-time low;curriculum and public examination changes were thrust atteachers with the minimum of preparation time or resourcesupport. In additional training lecturers have adapted to a bewildering variety of curriculum and funding changes whichhave had an instantaneous impact on their instructing practices. Resourcesare in determined decline. In my own faculty, in Thanet, wherethere is 25% male unemployment, they scarcely replace ourvideo machines before they get stolen once more-you have got toshow movies between thefts. (fhey’d had been a little dissatisfied in the event that they’d received the remaining video I recorded-Terry Eagletontalking about Literature and heritage. not a large marketplace for thatin Thanet.) And in between teaching Othello at ‘okay level andpoetry at ‘0’ you’re advising students about Aids (or they’readvising you). GCSE planning takes location within the tea breaks(and that’s no longer a comic story). Of path, teachers supply of their owntime as well for this work, because they know the way critical itis for the kids they teach-and because they be aware of they aregoing to raise the can. It took three particularly clever andexperienced lecturers of English two hours to figure out exactlywhat the analyzing board’s requirements were so far as assessment was concerned for their GCSE Literature syllabus,earlier than they might even start to construct a response to these necessities. This became partly because the grammar of the document became indistinct. became it intentionally indistinct? That’s anything
so as to be troubled me except my assessments are safely acceptednext year.
the lack of time concerns. GCSE is forming notions notionsof English at this second which may be infl uential for manyyears; that formative work both comes from above (in theform of, as an example, studying lists and evaluation strategies) orit’s performed via academics in snatched time. For the teacher, theGCSE debate inevitably and inexorably centres on assessment.
For the demoralised individuals of faculty teachers’ unions, paystill lies on the centre of this debate, because the Governmenthas refused to well known how lots stronger should be thedemands on teacher time, effort and journey in GCSE assessment. Many secondary colleges, counting on fashions of CSE,have chosen to go for a one hundred% coursework edition of GCSE.
Yet no-one I even have met is fully clear about what criteria willdetermine the numerous grade levels in English. The outcome willinevitably be that academics will tighten their personal programs, toensure equity to their college students (Le. to prevent the possibility ofa moderator stepping in at the last moment and marking downall the instructor assessments). A model which ideally shouldhave freed us into a greater egalitarian structure is already becoming prescriptive and divisive. in the meantime Kenneth Baker isproposing benchmark studying: Animal Farm may be study bythe age of 13 (so you’d more advantageous get analyzing); and he’s installation aCommission on English headed via a mathematician.
For these of who train English on the margins-somewhat thanteaching the conception of marginalisation-as I see myself doingin a technical school which acts as an escape route away fromthe determined unemployment of a less prosperous corner of theSouth-East, this convention has raised lots of contradictions.
indeed instructing English in the pre-HE sector in itself raisescontradictions. Their context is set by using the examining boards andthe financial climate; their genuine and useful resource situation isdetermined with the aid of rate-capping; and in the midst of this they have alot of sparky students, and the field of English to be re-interpreted.
there's room on the periphery for instituting change. Mode3 ‘N degree has been outlined, as have new subjects such asCommunications studies and Theatre reviews, developing inparallel with English, and taught by way of English academics. Accesscourses have additionally been critical brokers of educational changeand building, questioning and negotiating as they teach, interdisciplinary, and taking a multiplicity of processes to literature.
but as a trainer of English perhaps my most heavily feltresponsibility is the instructing of ‘A’ level. This morning earlier than Iset off for the conference I went into college to depart a mockexam for students who have this year utilized to institutions
largely represented right here. Signifiers did not figure in thequestions. My project as a trainer of English is primarily toenable these selected students to attain ‘N level grades. Onthe approach i am hoping to do a number of things. however the priorities areclear.
And what of the negative pupil? ‘A’ degree to at least one area ofthe scholar inhabitants capacity an entry card to larger training; to another section it ability an extra few quivers in thebow within the quest for the Holy Grail, i.e. a job. ‘A’ degree is tiedup with the arcane complexities of the UCCA kind. ‘A’ levelsequal facets scores for admission (which, as the .event ofAston tuition has shown, additionally equal funding: the better thepoints ranking for college students admitted, the bigger the average theuniversity is considered to have accomplished, the greater the UGCfunding.) ‘A’ levels equal a step up the ladder then for bothstudent and HE establishment. And what of the area of English asa subject? For the pupil who wants to head on to look at Englishat HE, English ability that it’s going to be greater complicated to getin.
What i'm talking about here are vigor structures. Thismorning Catherine Belsey berated the ancient English lifestyle forappropriating literature into the educational institution. What Iwant to ask is: what’s new? Over the ultimate couple of days I’veheard a few propositions discussed, or asserted: (1) howimportant it is to appreciate that the ‘exceptional texts’ of the oldcanon, now derided, have been a part of and underpinned an elitistculture; (2) how, nonetheless, they have to still ‘retain grasp’ of thesetexts and acceptable them as their own; (three) how, on the sametime, they should still get better misplaced voices from the previous, those whichthat equal elitist lifestyle sought to suppress; (4) how the studyof literature is, ungainsayably, ideological in nature.
Yet to me, a form of outsider, it is obvious that those that voicethese views are themselves embedded in and underpin one ofthe basic elitist institutions of their current historical past-theacademy. In its a variety of institutional varieties the academy is beingused to rob current voices of vigor and breath under the guise
of standards and values, throughout the admissions system. Forwhere do your knowledge students come from? How are theyselected? Do you see that system as a part of your situation? Ifyou are a member of an English department in an establishment ofHigher schooling, it's your subject, and you are implicated inthe means admissions selections are made. And that’s where ‘A’
level is available in, pat, like the historical villain.
i would have tons greater sympathy with radical positions inEnglish if they begun to grapple with their own region within the institutions, with their own role in cultural heritage. a short point out changed into made this morning of the difficulties of developingcultural studies inside institutionalised assessment techniques,direction service provider, cost jUdgements, and many others. however certainly that isthe first task? If that can’t be completed, what's going to the cultural historians make of the altogether more problematic and problematicjudgements-and they're and will be cost judgements, as a result of they are going to choose-in regards to the previous?
What I wish to imply is that it isn't ‘A’ degree which is thevillain of the piece. I wish to challenge the new orthodoxy inEnglish from the standpoint of pre-greater schooling, partly onthe basis of the institutional and structural phrases I’ve just outlined, however partly on the basis of what could be seen as aLeavisite view. For I’ve been struck at this conference with the aid of theemergence of a number of dirty phrases in criticism: ‘prevalent’,‘ethical price’, ‘particular person’, and, dirtiest of all, ‘F. R. Leavis’.
(As is commonly the case with soiled words, that ultimate one bought an awfullot of use.) Why the obsession with Leavisite principles?
definitely no self-respecting cultural materialist is going to believethat one man might single-handedly determine the canon ofEnglish studies? Why, nonetheless, given the contemptoften turned on the canon, hang on to the canonised texts-indeed, why study literature at all? As for ‘policing theboundaries of truth’, Catherine Belsey’s description of the oldstyle criticism variously condemned as passe, narrow andelitist; I’ve felt a fine deal extra the presence of thought policing in the new English, a dogmatism of assumption and fact which appear to me now not only to be in hazard of but to be actively in search of a new and reductive orthodoxy.
To consider the implications of that new orthodoxy, I wantto seem on the ‘A’ degree canon in relation to three areas whichhave been raised in this convention, or in fresh writing aboutnew literary idea; as I accomplish that I’d like to address myselfthrough the eyes of the challenging-pressed trainer and the complicated-pressed pupil. The three areas I shall believe are the proposed orcurrent demolition of the canon; the replacement of literatureby literary idea at the centre of English studies; and that strategy to literature which locations it on a continuum with background, and sees its value as deriving from its role as historicalevidence.
First then the canon. There’s no doubt that the range of ‘A’
level syllabuses as they stand at existing reflect an excellent narrower version of the canon than that which has been attackedso far. Shakespeare is compulsory on every ‘A’ level syllabus;Chaucer often seems as his sturdy associate. commonplace appearances are made by way of the Metaphysical and Romantic poets,Restoration comedy and Jane Austen. Milton appears no longer to bequite as widely wide-spread as he turned into. Of path, in the textsprescribed, appreciable freedom is given to scholar andteacher to select; in my own institution this alternative is oftendetermined by using whether they already personal a group of the texts, orwhether a textual content is obtainable in cheap paperback so that they canreasonably ask the college students themselves to buy it. consequently itis completely viable at present to look at ‘A’ stage Englishwithout analyzing any poetry aside from the blank verse ofShakespeare’s performs. A fresh HMI document showed that teachers
are on the complete reluctant to train poetry and that students arereluctant to method it To me, finding out the factors for this,and doing something about it, are as a minimum as notable a trigger forconcern as, say, questioning the centrality of Shakespeare tothe canon.
but what about that centrality? The best agreement thatexam boards may reach in their contemporary discussions of a common core at ‘A’ degree in English was that each one boards have to studyShakespeare-just as they do now. Would it be heresy to dropShakespeare from the A level canon? I haven’t definitely heardanyone suggesting that he should be dropped from theacademic canon-best re-examine. So may still he be re-examine at ‘A’
degree? if so, how? Political Shakespeare, ed. Jonathan 001limore and Alan Sinfield (1985), represents a few of thefreshest pondering on this query, and it's avowedly anti-elitistin its ‘cultural materialism’, registering its ‘dedication to thetransformation of a social order which exploits americans ongrounds of race, gender and class’ (Foreword). Sinfield, in‘Shakespeare and education’ in that volume, addresses himselfspecifically to the query of the region of Shakespeare in thepre-HE canon. he's especially scathing about ‘the mixture of cultural deference and cautious questioning promotedaround Shakespeare in GCE’, which he saysseems designed to assemble a petty bourgeoisie whichwill strive within limits allotted to it with out seemingto disturb the gadget-‘it doesn't want to ruin: theladder in which it imagines it will possibly climb’ (poulantzas)(p.142).
however who’s standing at the good of the ladder? Does approachingtexts from a cultural materialist, historicist or feministstandpoint as a result cancel out the current structure and standing ofEnglish in the academy, or of the academy itself, of whichthose ‘radical’ strategies still stay an element? simply who is itwho ‘doesn’t want to damage: the ladder wherein it imagines itcan climb’? Imagines? The ladder is in location and there are lotsof climbers. The remaining who should still be condemned are the hapless‘A’ stage college students who are within the place of least alternative.
Many critics would want to ‘de-universalise’ Shakespeare. Inpractice, what would that suggest at ‘~ level? perhaps coveringthe conception which suggests that de-universalisation; or ‘inserting’
the upward push of Shakespeare in English stories; or taking studentsback to the historical determinants of the plays and their performances and audiences. but are they rather chuffed to abandonthe thought of universality so quite simply? Shouldn’t college students be allowed to consider that as a position as smartly? when they readHamlet’s ‘0 what a rogue’ soliloquy and stumble upon the selfreflexive ideas of ‘What’s Hecuba to him or he to Hecuba Thathe should still weep for her?’ , are they now not encountering universallyrecognisable ideas couched in ironies which might be as a good deal inplace in Stoppard’s parasitic Rosencrantz and Guildenstern asthey are in Shakespeare? Proponents of the new orthodoxy areunwilling even to focus on this; the time period ‘normal’ has beendiscredited. Are they to raise this lack of discussion again to ‘~degree-and thence again to GCSE? I find the implications ofthat lack of dialogue caring; its outcomes can already be seenin a mass of accurate critical works which announce their assumed terms, now not up for dialogue, within the introduction and often reveal little signal of a full realizing of either the originor the reason for the positions the phrases encapsulate. PeterWiddowson, in his editorial introduction to Re-reading English(1982), describing the quandary of new materialist critics inrelation to idea and apply in criticism, revealinglyremarks: ‘The fear of being cast as an “empiricist” has led topositions being deserted … earlier than any tremendous work has
been achieved.’ Are they to introduce this worry into sixteen 12 months-oldseven earlier than they in fact recognize what ’empiricist’ skill? Whencontradictions emerge between positions-as, for instance,between Lacanian psychoanalysis and Althusserian Marxismare they to take the ‘with one start Jack become free’ position adopted by means of Belsey in important observe (1980)?:
Lacan curiously leaves little room for background, while Althusser’s theory of subjectivity leaves little room forchange. I have hence drawn on each and every place withoutdwelling on the incompatibilities between them … mypresent procedure looks to me to be admissible if itgenerates a productive crucial follow.
The impossibility of discussing difficulties with a place isemerging further and further strongly within the new critical concept; isthis to be transferred to more youthful minds? via whom?
Any re-analyzing of Shakespeare would at this expense suggest thatteachers would must spend even more time on Shakespeare,not less, within the cramped time scheme of ‘A’ stage as itstands at present. And would the literary theory which underpins the a variety of positions to be explored be accessible to thestudents (and i don’t imply obtainable to the publishers)?
on every occasion I actually have taught theoretical articles, as I have withstudents on an access direction where the freer mode and selfdetermined syllabus makes it possible for us the opportunity to achieve this, the studentsare alienated with the aid of the language and style-which is certainlyparaphrasable, and may be greater easily expressed, because Ihave to do this to make the essential texts available to college students.
If Shakespeare is to be robbed of his bourgeois connections, somust the brand new crucial concept; to the eyes and minds of workingclass students, as to many others, it is obscurantist, it excludesthem, and they are amused with the aid of the ironies this suggests. Oneanswer the theorists provide is itself part of the same obscurantism; they argue that a ‘ordinary-sense’ exposition of their positionmisleads the reader right into a false view of the readability, thetransparency of language. The expression should be complex soas not to deceive the reader into thinking the ideas handy.
The corollary of here is that such texts are available best to theinitiated, and that attempts to clarify them are treacherous. Ihope that one of the theorists will come to clarify this positionto my college students.
This brings us to the centrality of concept. It is correct that aliberal humanist subculture underpins lots of the strategy of‘A’ level, and i agree that this could need questioning. In thewords of the school of London examination Board, ‘the model is,I believe, a version of the English literary heritage which hasbeen broadened to consist of a good deal of more accurate writing.’
The Southern Universities Board is much less apologetic; in reply tomy question about whether there were any plans to includetheory in ‘A’ stage they replied ‘I be apologetic about that I don't understandyour reference to the greater contemporary literary thought’. (They didnot, of route, be apologetic about it in any respect-nor did they now not understand.)The humanist lifestyle has been criticised precisely becauseit is deficient in concept; and in apply in the ‘A’ level syllabusthis comes all the way down to an emphasis on ‘the textual content’. it's through now easyto see what the theorist will desire-explanations of how thetext comes into being, canon formation, value attachment, etc.
actually, much of this is able to be unique and constructive. Butperhaps it might be more sensible to ask why the text is sofirmly in place within the ‘A’ stage culture. Most would blame iton Leavis: there is an emphasiS on practical criticism, andmany ‘A’ degree examination papers carry unseens for essential appreciation. but supplied the scholar is made aware about the underpinning of these implicit positions and assumptions, is this now not themost useful approach to proceed? For right here they come to the question of time and assessment. it's the universities themselveswho have made ‘feet: stage the nexus of cost. if you need toread English you ought to be peculiarly expert at doing the testsset at ‘A’ level. To acquire these skills you need a definite lengthof time. Focussing on definite key texts is the glaring manner toorganise that point.
here I come to my closing point. I are looking to determine what hascome across to me most strongly at this convention, andthrough my contemporary analyzing round these subject matters. I quite simply admitthat there's an implicit and perhaps hidden orthodoxy at ‘A’
stage, which narrows and restricts. but what is being proposednow in English experiences is the substitute of 1 orthodoxywith yet another, one most likely greater narrowing and reductive as applied at ‘A’ degree than that which presently prevails.
The ancient Leavisite humanist way of life is for my part stilldefensible in a number of techniques, and not least of those is that itis in apply able to extension and pluralism of strategy.
plenty has been product of Leavis’ laying down of the high-quality noveltradition-but I don’t think that that ever stopped CharlotteBronte being read, or certainly being examine in methods diverse fromthe method Leavis would have examine it; whereas I actually have heard itsuggested at this conference that English departments shouldsimply abandon the educating of the nineteenth-century realistnovel. All styles of different techniques, readings and texts remainavailable and central within the ‘old’ approach. in terms of ‘toes:
stage, what the emphasis on the textual content does is at the least to go away theway open for a multiplicity of approaches which definitely needto be accessible in some kind to the student And yes-at theleart of that does lie individual response. in lots of circumstances ‘A’
level is a scholar’s first serious contact with literature (and Idon’t mean Literature), and someone response to a firstreading is imperative to the endeavor of studying; it’s a personal recreation! confidence relating to the work springs at the beginning froman encouragement of that response. Nor need that emphasisrule out the questioning that theorists want. And let me remindyou that there are texts and readers backyard the academy-lotsand loads of them-and that one of the vital issues that readers do isencounter immediately recognisable shared emotions and ideasin texts, even if academics deconstruct them or now not. And if thisresponse of the ordinary reader is socially developed-so isthe response of the cultural materialist critic.
however the new orthodoxy, or rather competing orthodoxies,are of route determinedly anti-pluralist. It has been encouraging to hear at this convention functional tips for a couple of entry aspects to historicism inside a taught path ofEnglish, as it has to hear feedback concerning the crossing ofboundaries which takes region inside feminist criticism. however farmore aggressive and monolithic stances were taken byvarious theorists: David Craig and Michael Egan say: ‘We callour approach historicist so as to mark it off from different waysof analyzing ingenious literature, yet recognise through implicationwe are also laying declare to the whole practice of modernliterary criticism’ (,Historicist Criticism’ , in Re-readingEnglish, op. cit.). Later they assert ‘the extra traditionally accurate a bit of inventive writing is the greater it is probably going tobe. And the more advantageous it is aesthetically the more traditionally accurate it is likely to be.’ this sort of slender and imperialist approach would in apply at ‘A’ level result in learned orthodoxies of strategy which would be incapable of elasticityaccording to the particular person; or it would lead to the disappearance of English ‘A’ level altogether. certainly this wouldseem to be the logical circulate for such theorists. I appear forwardto listening to that view argued the place it concerns-in the case of thathuge mass of still silent voices who don’t quantity amongst the30% of candidates to achieve the required English entry gradesfor HE, or who certainly don’t quantity amongst the candidates atall.
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